Science of Exercise

A recent study has shown how exercise benefits the body on a cellular level. What’s even cooler is that it found what type of exercise that’s best for boosting cell health. Have you heard of High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT)? If you have, you likely know that it’s one of the best ways to train. Now with recent research, we know it has even more benefits on the cellular level.

Published in Cell Metabolism (2017; 25[3], 581-92), the study included 36 men and 36 women categorized as “young” (18 to 30 years old) or “older” (65 to 80 years old). Each participant was assigned to one of three training programs for 12 weeks: HIIT on an indoor bike; strength training with weights; or a combination of both. Scientists took muscle biopsies from the volunteers (plucked some samples) and then compared the results with those from a sedentary control group.

 

Data showed that the exercise groups experienced improvements in cellular function and in the ability of mitochondria to generate energy. This adds to the evidence that exercise slows the aging process at a cellular level. Muscle mass and insulin sensitivity improved with all three training protocols, but outcomes did vary. “HIIT revealed a more robust increase in gene transcripts than other exercise modalities, particularly in older adults,” according to the authors. HIIT increased mitochondrial capacity by 49% in the young group and 69% in the older group.

“HIIT reversed many age-related differences in the proteome, particularly of mitochondrial proteins in concert with increased mitochondrial protein synthesis.”

For best benefit though, a combination of HIIT and strength training is still recommended since HIIT alone doesn’t increase strength and muscle mass like the strength training protocol does.

What does this all mean for you? The take home message is for aging adults that supervised HIIT is best since it confers the most benefits both metabolically and at the molecular level. This is all according to K. Sreekumaran Nair, MD, PhD from the study linked above.

Do you partake in HIIT training? What about strength training? Do you notice benefits from it? While you may not feel your cells changing, they are the building blocks to living things. And once again: do you even science, bro? 🙂

Nature’s Fastest Marathon Runner

Some animals are good at running, us humans being one of them. But most animals while they can run fast they often don’t run far. Or if they run far, they don’t run fast. One exception outside of humans is the ostrich. The ostrich can run up to 43 mph at their fastest. When they run further than 20 miles, their average speed drops to 30 mph. The average stride of an ostrich is 10 to 16 feet, one of the longest of any bird not to mention animal.

The African ostrich is the fastest, clocking speeds between 60 to 70 km per hour which allows this species to finish a full marathon in about 40 minutes rather than the two plus hours needed by a human. So how do ostriches compare to humans?

http://www.scienceinschool.org/2011/issue21/ostrich

When compared to humans, ostriches have the majority of their musculature located very high on the thigh bone and hip, whereas the lower swinging elements of their legs are moved by long, mass-reducing tendons. Tendons are very light and aid in long steps along with increased step frequency. Just don’t think that tendons make these birds tender. They tend to run when they feel threatened, but are known to attack when needed especially when there’s an egg involved. (largest egg = tastiest egg)

Random Jen fact: I did an entire school project on ostriches in 3rd grade and absolutely loved it. What’s your favorite animal? What’s your favorite running animal? Did you even consider the ostrich a runner before this post?